When your professors or advisor requires you to write in Chicago citation method, you should arrange your content in the following order: Cover /title page, Body, Appendix when required, Notes and Bibliography.
Use full names of the people, legislation, and agencies for the first citation. Include the agency’s acronym in parenthesis after the first reference, e.g., World Health Organization (WHO). After the first time refer to a person by last name and acronym for agencies or legislation bills for all the other citations. Write out all number lower than 10 in words.
CMS requires placement of footnotes at the bottom of a page while the endnotes appear on a separate page but after the paper’s body. Footnotes at the bottom of a page should be single-spaced to show in-text citation a page. The first footnote should have the name of the author, the title, the publisher or source and date of the publication. E.g. Author Author, Chicago Citation Method, 100-300( Chicago University Press,2017) Entries from a periodical or book must include page numbers unless they are non-existent.
When refereeing to the same source a second time, you can use ibid. It means the same source. E.g. Author, Chicago Citation Method, 100-300(Chicago University Press, 2017)10-12 . ibid.,11.1 Author, 11-15. However, its use is diminishing, and the new method is to use author and page number when referring to sources you cited before in the previous footnote in the format: Author, 11-15.
For secondary sources (citing a source within a source), include both in the note. E.g. Author’s two names (Last and first), “Chicago Citation Method” Manuals 20(October 2016): 150, quoted in (Author 1), Author 2 : Writing Styles(Chicago University Press, 2017).
End notes also called footnotes appear at the end of the body of a document but before a bibliography not at the end of each page like a footnote.
The citation format is similar to that of footnotes and are single spaced but with double spaces between.
You should follow these guidelines to format both notes.
- Insert note number after the punctuations.
- Use Arabic numerals(1,2) not roman (i, ii)
- At the beginning of the endnotes page, type “Notes” at the top but not “endnotes” in Times New Roman 10 pt font.
- Indent the first lines of each note.
- Each reference should have its number. Do not reuse any number even when the reference is appearing for the second time.
- Separate two citations using a semi-colon when citing multiple sources in a note.
- Do not use two notes at the end of one sentence.
- Book by one author: Author Last name, First name Initial of middle name, Title of the book, (Publication place: publisher, year), page.
- Book by two or three authors: Full name of the First, Second and Third author, Book Title(Place of publication, publisher, year), page.
- Chapter of Anthology: Last Name, First name. “Section Title.” In the Anthology/Book, Edited by (First and last name), page(s), Ed.(for edition), City: Publisher, year of publication.
- Newspaper Article in printed form: Author’s Last name, Author First name, “Title (of the cited article),” Newspaper name, Page, Date, Month, Year.
- Newspaper Article in Database: “Article Title,” “Newspaper Name”, Page, Database, Month, date, year, URL(accessed Month Date, year)
- Magazine Article: Author Last name, first name, “ Title of the Article” , Magazine Article in Italics,” Month Date, Year of publication
- Journal: Last name, First name(and First, Last for two authors), “Title of the Article.” Journal’s Title. Series. Volume. No , Issue(Month Date, Year of Publication): Page(s)
- Articles by Anonymous authors: Article Title, Title of the publication, Month, Date year, page(s)
- Encyclopedia: Author’s Last name, First name. Encyclopedia Title in Italics# ed. #vols. Edited by (write Editor’s First Name, Last Name). Publication city, Publisher. Publication year.
- Dictionary: Dictionary’s title in italics, Definition word, (if applicable by first name last name), accessed month date, year, URL.
- Website: Author/Owner’s Last name, First Name, Title of the Website, Month Date, Year. Accessed Month Date, Year.URL
- Online Database: Last, First name . “Article’s Title.” Journal Title, Series, Volume, no. Issue (Month Date, Year Published): Page(s). Accessed Month Date, Year. URL.
- Photo: Last name, First name. Title of the photograph in italics. Month Date, year of creation. Collection, organization(e.g museum, institution etc), Location
- Photograph in a Database: Last name, First name. Photo Title in italics, Month date, Creation year, Collection. Organization. Location. Accessed month date. Year. URL.
- Photo from a website: Last name, first name, Photo’s Title in Italics, year of creation. Collection, organization. Location. Accessed. Month Date. Year. URL.
- Musical recording: Last name, the first name of the band /performer. Album title. Record label, number of the recording. Year of recording. Format. (Listing of audio materials should be in discography but not in the bibliography.)
- Radio or TV: Series name in italics, “ Episode Title.”Episode number( when available). Directed by (first name Last name). Written by first, the last name. Name of the broadcasting network. Month Date. Original year of airing date.
- Movie: Title of the movie in italics, Directed by First name, Lat name. City where it was published. Studio, Year of Release.
Bibliography or reference list in CMS all the sources you use in your paper in parenthetical citation format. You cite by writing the last name of the author, year of publication and specific page.
Label the first page as “Bibliography” if you are using notes-bibliography style and “References” for the Author-Date format.
Leave two blank lines for first entry and one for subsequent entries.
- List entries alphabetically (letter by letter) by the first word of entry.
- Write full names for one to three authors
- For four up to ten authors, write the names but use the name if the first author followed by et al. in notes as well as a parenthetical citation.
- For sources without authors, cite the short form of its title. Use up to 4 keywords.
- Write the full name of the publisher
- Skip access dates if you do not find publication date
- Abbreviate the Date of published work as “n.d” if you cannot determine the date.
- Provide all the DOI and URLs that you find.