Turabian citation method is a creation of Kate L. Turabian Manual for writers of the Research Papers, Theses, and dissertations. It presents two types of documentation systems.
The notes-bibliography style also called bibliography style and the author-date style. The previous name is parenthetical citations-reference list style.
Both styles are the same as those in Chicago Manual of Style save for little modification to suit needs of the students.
Bibliography style is mostly for history, literature, and arts. The style presents bibliographic information in the footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography.
The author-date style is more concise. It is more applicable for natural, physical and social sciences. This system cites sources briefly in parentheses in the text by the last name of the author and publication date. The writer amplifies the parenthetical citations in the list of references. The full bibliographic information appears here.
In-text(IT) author and Date Information: parentheses must enclose in-text references. Sperate page numbers by a comma if they are required.
Reference list(R): The first line begins to flush on the left margin and indention five spaces in the following lines.
- Book in print form
- One Author: IT: (Author last name, Year, page). R: Author last name, first name, year. Title in italics. City of publication. Publisher
- Two authors: IT: (last name first author last name of second author, year, page or pages). R: First author and Second author (last name, the first name for both ), year title in italics, City: publisher.
- Four authors or more: IT: Last name of first listed author et al. year page). R: Names of all the authors, year, Title in italics. City of publication. Publisher.
- Book in electronic form: IT: ( last name of the author or authors year). R: Author or author names, eds. Year. Title in italics, publication city: publisher. URL ( accessed Month date, year).
- Journal Article: IT:( The last name of the author-year, page). R: the last name of fist listed author last and first name if there are other authors. Year. Title of the Article. Journal title vol: page
- Magazine article: IT: (Author last name year, year). R: Author last name, First Name. Year .Article Title. Magazine title in italics Month, Date.
- Newspaper Article: IT:(Author last name year). R: Author last name, First name.year. Article’s title.Title of the newspaper in italics,Month date,section(e.g health section), edition. You can cite a newspaper article in running text instead of citing in the note or parenthetical citation. It is common to omit to cite newspaper article from reference list or bibliography. E.g., As Antony Mark notes in a Chicago Times article on October 20, 2016,…” Cite a newspaper article text and reference list when there is a need for formal citation
- Book review: IT:(Author Year, Date). R: Review’s Author last name, First name.Year. Title of the chapter in italics. Review of the –Book Title in italics-by Author full name. Name of the review publisher (e.g. newspaper) Book review in italics, Month date.
- Thesis or Dissertation from website: IT: Author Last name, year, chapters, page. e.g John,2015,15-20,30. R: Author First name last name, “Title in italics” Master’s thesis or Ph.D. diss.,University, publication year, URL
- Thesis or Dissertation from Database: Last.(Publishing date).Author First name last name, “Title” thesis or Ph.D. dis., University’s, year of publication, Database(include Identification number).
- Website: You can cite a website in running text rather than in parenthetical citation. Now it is usual to omit website citation from the bibliography list. You may also cite them in text and references list in the following way: IT:(Organization or website owner). R: Last name, first name. ” Title. of the Article” Site’s Title. Month Date, Publication Year. Publication/Update Month Date, Year or Accessed Month Date, Year. URL.
Turabian works well for students at the college and high school levels for their scholarly papers.
When writing in Turabian Citation Method, keep it in mind that it requires writers to identify the date of accessing electronic and web sources.